Black Sea ARGO

  • A. Palazov Institute of Oceanology, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences
  • V. Slabakova Institute of Oceanology, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences
Keywords: Argo floats, Black Sea, monitoring, modelling, forecasting.


The article provides an overview of the Black Sea Argo program as the first whole basin scale in situ observing system that provides near real time data of essential ocean variables in the Black Sea, which meet FAIR principles (findability, accessibility, interoperability and reusability) and which are used widely for scientific research, monitoring, modelling and forecasting.


1. Argo : web-site. URL:
2. Balan S., Fach B., Grayek S., Poulain P.-M., Stanev E., Storto A. Argo activities in the Black Sea. : web-site. URL: Meetings/News/Argo-activities-in-the-Black-Sea [4.9.2017 22:31:04]
3. CORIOLIS operational oceanography: web-site. URL:
4. Euro-Argo : web-site. URL:
5. Euro-Argo dashboard: web-site. URL:
6. Falina A., Sarafanov A., Ozsoy E. and Turuncoglu U.U. Observed basin-wide propagation of Mediterranean water in the Black Sea, J. Geophys. Res. Oceans. 2017;122:3141–3151.doi:10.1002/2017JC012729.
7. Kobayashi T., King B. and Shikama N. An Estimation of the Average Lifetime of the Latest Model of APEX Floats. Journal of Oceanography. 2009;65:81–89.
8. Korotaev, G., Oguz, T., Riser, S. Intermediate and deep currents of the Black Sea obtained from autonomous profiling floats. Deep-Sea Research Part II: Topical Studies in Oceanography. 2006;53:1901– 1910.
9. Lima L., Ciliberti S.A/, Aydog˘du A., Masina S., Escudier R., Cipollone A., Azevedo D., Causio S., Peneva E., Lecci R., Clementi E., Jansen E., Ilicak M., Cretì S., Stefanizzi L., Palermo F. and Coppini G. Climate Signals in the Black Sea From a Multidecadal Eddy-Resolving Reanalysis. Front. Mar. Sci. 2021;8:1214. doi: 10.3389/fmars.2021.710973
10. Mediterranean & Black Sea Argo Centre : web-site. URL:
11. NOAA's National Centers for Environmental Information : web-site. URL:
12. OceanOPS : web-site. URL:
13. Palazov A., Notarstefano G., Slabakova V., Cancouët R. Preliminary results of shallow coastal float operations in the Black Sea. EA RISE Project, D6.3_V1.1, 2021. URL:
14. Palazov A., Slabakova V., Peneva E., Stanev E. Black Sea Argo history, current status and prospect, Operational Oceanography for Sustainable Blue Growth. Proceedings of the Seventh EuroGOOS International Conference; 28-30 October 2014; Lisbon, Portugal. ISBN 978-2-9601883-1-8. Buch E, Antoniou Y,
Eparkhina D, Nolan G (Eds.), EuroGOOS AISBL; 2016:519–526.
15. Palazov A., Stanev E., Korchev G., Peneva E. and Slabakova S. Development of National research infrastructure as a Bulgarian component of the Euro ARGO network – Bul ARGO. Geophysical Research Abstracts. 2011;13:3790.
16. Palazov, A., Slabakova, V., Peneva, E., Staefanov, A., Marinova, V., Milanova, M., Korchev. G.BULARGO activities in the Black Sea. Proceedings of the TU-Varna International Jubilee Congress. 2012. 110–115.
17. Peneva, E., Stanev, E., Palazov, A., Korchev, G., Slabakova, V., Milanova, M., and Gencheva, A. BULARGO national research infrastructure: the present state and perspectives for the Argo data in the Black Sea. Proceedings of the Tenth International Conference on Marine Sciences and Technologies "Black Sea 2010". 2011. 318–323.
18. Poulain P.-M., Menna M., Ziqing Zu. Geostrophic currents in the Mediterranean and Black Seas derived from Argo float profiles. 2016. 10.13140/RG.2.2.30077.77285.19. Palazov et al, 2021, D6.3 EA-RISE. Available from: V1.1_VF_under_EC_review.pdf
19. Ricour F., Capet A., D’Ortenzio F., Delille B., Grégoire M. Dynamics of the deep chlorophyll maximum in the Black Sea as depicted by BGC-Argo floats. Biogeosciences. 2021;18(2):755–774.
20. Stanev E.V., Peneva E., & Chtirkova B. Climate change and regional ocean water mass disappearance: Case of the Black Sea. Journal of Geophysical Research: Oceans. 2019;124:4803–4819.
21. Stanev E., He Y., Grayek S. and Boetius A. Oxygen dynamics in the Black Sea as seen by Argo profiling floats. Geophys. Res. Lett. 2013;40:3085–3090. 16238, 16239.
22. Stanev E., He Y.,Grayek S., Boetius A. Oxygen dynamics in the Black Sea as seen by Argo profiling loats. Geophysical Research Letters. 2013;40(12):3085–3090.
How to Cite
A. Palazov, & V. Slabakova. (2022). Black Sea ARGO. Oceanographic Journal (Problems, Methods and Facilities for Researches of the World Ocean), (3 (14), 50-59. (14).37